The Elementary Particles Causing the Thermonuclear Fusion and the Evolvement of the Fixed star 
http://www.sciencehuman.com 科学人 网站 2004-09-26
Author: Anbaoe Lee
Beijing Dingson Environmental Protection Technology
Company, No12 Huangsi street, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100028,
6.Summary and Discussion
I quite agree with the view of that the elementary particles should include e, μ, π, p, n, Λ, W and such particles having been discovered , not only so-called quarks. The elementary particles may be regarded as all particles of carrying a unit charge and all neutral particles and including those of which have not been discovered. All nuclear reactions including those without having been realized should all exist in the fixed star. In particular, the cycling and bombarding of the neutrons and electrons have very important effect for the formation of varied super-nuclides. In the universe, the irregular distribution of the elementary particles causes the cosmic charge distribution to be irregular. The interaction and irregular distribution of the charged elementary particles should be the base to decide whether the thermonuclear fusion can be maintained, also should be the base of the cosmic evolvement. It is very clear that, the double cycles system of the thermonuclear fusion already make the vast universe organically come into full contact with the varied particles in the microcosm. This systemic model also explains the source and formation of varied nuclei, the evolvement processes of the fixed star is right the processes of birthing and growing of varied nuclei. So the double cycles model of the thermonuclear fusion may be shown as the following Figure 1:
Figure 1: This is the working mode of the thermonuclear fusion. The center is various nuclei, the left is the negative particles, the right is the positive particles, and both the top and the underside are the neutral particles. The arrowhead directions express the particles of producing or the advancing of the nuclear reactions.
It should be noticed that both the nuclear reactions of the electrons captured and super-nuclides decay must all release energy, but those reactions of forming super-nuclides can absorb energy of neutrons and such neutral particles. The decay and formation of super-nuclei are just the most important middle-way in the whole nuclear cycling course. Along with the hydrogen plasma being used up, the quantities of super-nuclides and heavy nuclei will increase continuously, but their absorbing energy in the forming course is quite small only the certain particles’ energy like the neutrons. Moreover, some nuclear reactions of depending on neutrons etc. bombarding can similarly release energy, for example the nuclear fission. From <1> to <6> viewing, the amounts of releasing energy reactions are always too more than those of absorbing energy in the whole system, and the total quantities of releasing energy are further more than the total of absorbing energy of producing heavy nuclides. Even if a few of the nuclear reaction energy radiate to the universe, their quantities also amaze us very much. But then, each energy value of all upper reaction equations still need to confirm afresh through the future tests but not counting.
Some of the positive elementary particles like e+ μ+ л+ can easily gain the certain energy, and can also collide into varied nuclei, but their probabilities of being captured by the nuclei are always not higher enough than that of the electrons, even are lower than the probability that the neutral particles such as neutrons capture them. However, from the view of changing the nuclear charge structure, the cycling and bombarding of these positive particles have fairly profound effect for the nuclei cycling like as the negative elementary particles. But than, the probability that the positive elementary particles combine with the negative elementary particles is always further higher than that of the positive particles bombarding into the nuclei.
Furthermore, a part of the elementary particles, which own the higher energy, easily escape out of the system of thermonuclear fusion. This fact has completely been proved by those experiments, which can be repeated similarly if we are willing to observe them through the solar wind today. Of course, these facts also show that the thermonuclear fusion holds similarly strong radioactivity, not very clean energy for using.
It goes without saying, we should do lots of tests to proof the processes of thermonuclear fusion, but these are no one’s ability to complete in order to resolve the problems. Such some of the upper reactive equations seem to be different from the observed results in the lab, but that lots of the effects come from the controlled plasma tests show the collectivity properties of the particles, no appearance of alone particle. So the reactive equations of the double cycles need further to be proofed and perfected. Undoubtedly, this model should educe the more valuable opinions.
3. The Thermonuclear Fusion of Fixed Star
It has two main reasons that the fixed star can make the thermonuclear reactions last, i.e., there are the large quantities of the light nuclei particularly main hydrogen, and varied accelerating fields making continuously various particles gain the certain energy in the fixed star. Neither of the conditions can be neglected. If the quantities of the light nuclei are large enough, how does the accelerating fields form and exert its actions?
1. Ample and Varied Plasma Clouds
As we known, at the beginning times of sidereal evolution, there are not the fully perfect electromagnetic accelerating systems, but there are the plentiful quantities of various particles with the different momentum. Moreover, this phenomenon always exists from the fusion beginning to the end. Various charged particles disturb each other and exchange energy, sometimes collecting or separating, they are ease to form varied particles’ groups. The small groups can be grown up gradually to form the huge plasma clouds through their collision. Of course, the particles density and energy of each group are different completely.
However, the particles’ motions in plasma are very complicated. Many plasma clouds, which are already collecting the large quantities of varied particles of carrying different charge and energy, always appear frequently in change. The existing of varied plasma clouds is just the show that the particles’ distribution has great discrepancy, and each cloud can also have the certain superabundant quantities of charge. The positive plasma clouds, which the whole plasma cloud displays the positive charge, are much easier to collide with the plasma clouds of displaying the negative charge.
Because each plasma cloud contains the different quantities of the charged particles, some regions in the plasma cloud will show stronger electric potential in the course of the clouds disturbing each other. As two plasma clouds are close to each other, the polarization phenomenon can happen in each cloud. Then, the particles of carrying the positive electrical charges and those of carrying the negative charge (the main is electrons) will be distributed in the face shell of each cloud as their own properties. Thus, there is very high electric potential difference between the opposite faces of which two plasma clouds are close to each other, and the accelerating electromagnetic field is already forming at the same time, as the following Figure 2 shown:
Figure 2: The two plasma clouds will be in the collision.
So, the charged particles between the clouds, and those particles in the opposite face shell of two clouds, all can be accelerated strongly owing to the Coulomb's Law. The negative charge particles are moving rapidly with the certain direction against the motion direction of the positive charge particles, and both of particles are close to each other quickly. Therefore, if these particles obtain enough energy, they will have the nuclear reactive collision with each other. Because of the electrons being easily accelerated, the first nuclear reactions are mainly that the electrons bombard into the light nuclei; soon afterwards, the producing neutrons begin to collide into the others light nuclei. Particularly, as these plasma clouds are close to each other increasingly, the nuclear reactions will become more violent.
From the certain point of view, there is an analogy between the movement of plasma clouds and the drifting thunderstorm clouds that we can see in summer. Only the component of the plasma clouds is different from the steam clouds. There are the large quantities of the charged particles in the plasma clouds, and these clouds can still have violent reactive collision in the fixed star. If these plasma clouds become heavier and thicker through lots of small clouds getting together, they can hold their own greater electric potential, and create the greater electric field between the clouds of opposite motion with being close to each other. Then, the charged particles, which enjoy the powerful accelerating electric field, can obtain the higher energy, thus their collision will become particularly violent, and the nuclear reactions are complicated very much, too.
If plenty of particles happen to hold the deflective motion toward the same direction, and form the group motion of particles, then all charged particles of owning the certain deflective motion can easily form a spiral particles stream even a spiral particles ring-stream. At last, perhaps they have a chance to form gradually a firm spiral electromagnetic field, which can last for a long time in the fixed star. Undoubtedly, the firm spiral electromagnetic field has stronger accelerating effect and binding action for various charged particles. So the charged particles are not easy to escape from the fixed star yet. Of course, while many plasma clouds are close to each other and keep violent actions together, the motions of the particles among them can become complicated very much. These plasma clouds can still make the stream of the charged particles twist badly.
Just because there are a great deal of varied accelerating fields to drift in the fixed star, varied charged particles can be accelerated to gain the certain energy. Therefore, these particles can strongly collide each other to make the double cycles of thermonuclear reaction last, namely that the various nuclei cycling depends on the elementary particles cycling and bombarding. At the same time, the system of nuclear fusion can continue producing out the large quantities of varied compound nuclei. And lots of the super-nuclides can still evolve gradually into the stable multi-charge nuclei such as Lithium, Beryllium, Boron and Carbon, …… even including super-uranium nuclei by the decays in the fixed star.
2.The Super-nuclei Body Groups and the Gravitational Attraction
The super-nucleus already contains many elementary particles in the very tiny volume, but it cannot display directly all charges of the elementary particles in appearance. Thus, the properties that the charges of some elementary particles disappear in the heavy nuclei will be fully displayed with the gravitational attraction.
If these nuclei of different masses gain the similar energy, for example that the neutrons of having similar energy bombard into various mass’ nuclei, the velocity of the heavy nuclei must be slower than that of the light nuclei. In particular, various nuclei have magnetic discrepancies, and some nuclides mixing (including super-nuclides) can make very strong magnetism be excited. Usually the strong magnetism can cause the charged particles with strong magnetism to accumulate together, and form some small stable magnetic entities. Although sometimes these entities can also are dispersed by certain stronger power, their drifting can deeply influence the motion of charged particles. Therefore, on collecting nuclides, the nuclides’ magnetism exerts the key influence without any replacing objects.
As varied super-nuclides are produced continually, varied heavy nuclides are easy to be gathered together by themselves and form the tiny body of mixing nuclides. Though in the environment of thermonuclear fusion there is no condition to form lots of great entity like rock, there are always varied dense particles groups and denser group bodies, which are composed of mixing varied heavy nuclei. Thus, the small body of heavy nuclei can restrict varied granules of heavy nuclei, and the granules can restrict varied heavy nuclei, and the body of the granules groups can restrict varied granules …… If the body of the granules’ groups is large enough, it can decide the small bodies’ groups of heavy particles and the granules of heavy nuclei to drift around it. Obviously, varied super-nuclides are very difficult to escape from the system of thermonuclear fusion.
As the collecting granules become more increasingly, various granules’ bodies in each group will continue to be in the collision and combination with each other much frequently. Thus, various groups’ bodies of having different volume and form will appear continuously in the fixed star. Those larger bodies have stronger attraction than the small bodies. Certainly, the most collecting body can develop gradually into the center of gravitational attraction in each group body. At last, the most mass group body in the whole system can remain gradually in the center of the most violent nuclear reactions in the fixed star. Moreover, it will evolve gradually into the gravitational center of fixed star.
Thus, the gravitational attraction of the sidereal center can powerfully act on the small drifting groups of mixing varied nuclides, and make many drifting groups drop gradually into the center. I believe that, not only there are many the group bodies for drifting, but also there must be a huge core of mixing heavy super-nuclides in the center of fixed star. Perhaps, the core is composed of some super-uranium super-nuclides mixing with varied heavy nuclides even including a few of the super-neutrons, and is keeping very strong magnetism.
In short, the reason why the gravitational attraction is grown up has the direct relationship with forming super-nuclides group bodies including the super-uranium super-nuclides group bodies, though some group bodies (particularly the small bodies) sometimes can easily be dispersed. In the fixed star, the frequently instantaneous fusion-burst is the base of producing abundant super-nuclides groups. Every violent burst of the nuclear fusion can always produce a great deal of the heavy super-nuclides. The plenty of compound nuclei exist in the limited space at the short time, thus they are ease to collide each other and form the group bodies. Each action of the violent fusion bursts means that a new group begins to appear.
It is necessary to point out that these heavy super-nuclides are just the nuclear bodies of having large mass but carrying a few of charges. In the fixed star, the super-nuclides are the main mode of the nuclear existence, because there are plentiful quantities of neutrons and such the elementary particles to bombard continuously into various nuclei. The super-nuclides are easy to be collected through mixing varied nuclides, even probably grow up some large groups of mixing super-heavy super-nuclides. Though their formation requires a quite long times, the total quantities of the super-nuclides are always increasing constantly. Even thinking of that there are probably some super-neutron bodies, which are composed of varied super-neutrons, they should similarly have contribution to forming sidereal gravity.
For the group bodies of the super-nuclides, no matter how small, they can all encircle the center to drift, because the fusion system already fixes the motion orbit and mode of these group bodies with the stable energy. Moreover, the hard shell, where is distributed by the dense and cold plasma with the certain thickness, can be formed in the outside of the fixed star, just like a globe shell. Therefore, as the large quantities of escaping particles from the inside of the fixed star are bombarding the hard shell, the nuclear reactions can occur incessantly in the hard shell. At the same time, the hard shell must emit continually varied rays and the elementary particles to the outside space. So lots of stars are observed like as a round plate of shining as our sun.
However, the action of gravitational attraction can never be neglected in the fixed star again. As the large group bodies drift continuously, the occupying space of varied particles are sure to be contracted around the bodies because of their attractive action. Then, the density of the plasma must become denser than the former times, so that those nuclear reaction actions will become particularly violent. Even there sometimes is violent burst near the larger body.
Therefore, forming gravitational attraction must firstly be satisfied with a basic condition namely producing the large quantities of super-nuclides, though all super-nuclides are yielded only in the thermonuclear fusion. The forming process of the central gravitational attraction is just that the heavy super-nuclides are produced more and more and accumulated continuously so as to form a very large body. Even there are probably some groups of the super-uranium super-nuclides in the core of the earth, so it can hold the strong effect of the gravitational attraction and magnetic field. There are surely the heavy super-nuclides in the inside of all planets. Therefore, I believe fully that, the forming process of planets and comets similarly needs to pass through the thermonuclear fusion for a long times.
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