The Elementary Particles Causing the Thermonuclear Fusion and the Evolvement of the Fixed star 
http://www.sciencehuman.com 科学人 网站 2004-09-26
Author: Anbaoe Lee
Beijing Dingson Environmental Protection Technology
Company, No12 Huangsi street, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100028,
3.The very Complicated Actions of the Thermonuclear Fusion
In a general way, the nuclear reactions can always keep a very violent state in the large fixed star. However, for the inside of the same fixed star, the distributing quantities of varied charged particles are very irregular. While the superabundant quantities of electrons are larger in the certain region of the system, the nuclear reactions like the upper reactions <1> and <5> will occur more frequently. Similarly, those reactions like the reactions <2> and <4> will appear with a higher frequency if the superabundant quantities of neutrons are larger in the certain regions of the system. Besides, as the quantities of electrons are quite lacking, varied super-nuclides will make frequently β-decays; similarly, as those of neutrons are quite lacking, the nuclear reactions with the charged elementary particles can occur frequently to form necessary neutrons.
But then, the decaying electrons of the upper reactions <3> and <6> are different from the bombarding electrons of the equations <1> and <5>. Because, the electrons of the reactions <3> <6> are the cold electrons with the lower energy, but the electrons of the reactions <1> <5> are the thermal electrons with the higher energy, their effects are completely different. The cold electrons must be accelerated to gain the certain energy in order to turn into the thermal electrons to be captured by the nuclei.
Similarly, both the frequent decaying of the super-nuclides and the frequent captured of the elementary particles can be controlled by the environment of the system. If the quantities of the elementary particles are very plentiful in certain regions, the system has the sufficient condition to produce out quite large quantities of varied super-nuclides and multi-charge nuclei. As those elementary particles are quite lacking in the surrounding environment, the large quantities of varied super-nuclides will make varied decays so as to complement perfectly the indispensable quantities of the elementary particles, except that the fusion system collapses completely. The decaying actions of the super-nuclides will become more frequent while the bombarding quantities of the elementary particles are decreased largely and quickly. So this elastic mechanism can always continue to be maintained unless the quantities of the hydrogen plasma and super-nuclides are very lacking. In the system of the thermonuclear fusion, every change of various influential factors can all make the system have quite active response. The system can fully hold itself adaptability so as to make the systemic structure so steady that it cannot be broken up for a long times.
In deed, the light nuclei cycling are absolutely the processes that various light nuclei exchange fully and rapidly the energy with “the medium tools” namely the elementary particles. Moreover, the large quantities of super-nuclides have the important effect on maintaining the indispensable quantities of elementary particles, though their formation need to use up the large quantities of hydrogen plasma. That the large quantities of heavy nuclei are produced shows that there are lots of spaces to be freed in the system, because a part of spaces that the hydrogen plasma occupies is contracted in the super-nuclides and the multi-charge nuclei. So, in order to make the whole energy structure of sidereal system very steady all the time, the system will usually gradual to be contracted in the limited space extent to make up the unoccupied space and increase the density of plasma and shorten the particles’ journey.
Even if those neutral particles such as neutrons and neutrinos etc. are easy to escape from the system, however, the quantities of the light nuclei, such which can have the elastic collision with the fast neutrons and such neutral particles, are very large in the fixed star, so this is just indirect to prevent them from escaping. At last the velocity and the momentum of these neutral particles are not higher, so that most neutral particles cannot yet escape out of the sidereal system but return actively to join in the nuclear reactions again.
Moreover, as the electrons with the certain high energy collide into the certain nuclei, these reactions probably yield some fast neutrons and more neutrinos. Thus, if the fast neutrons bombard into the nuclei or those super-nuclides, some probably make the nuclear fission, such as the collision between 3He or 5He or 7Li or 8Li or 8Be and the neutrons. The following is the seventh group of the nuclear reactions <7> shown:
6Li + n → 4He + 3H +γ
7Li + n → 4He + 3H + n +γ
8Li + n → 4He + 3H + 2n +γ
8Li +γ→24He + e +υ+γ’
7Be + n →24He +γ
8Be +γ→24He +γ’
8B + e →24He +γ
9B +γ→24He + e+ + n +υ+γ’
Besides the others of the elementary particles with high energy can also cause the nuclear fission. The decays such as 8Li and 8Be and 9B etc. in the upper reaction group <7> should be the nuclear fission actions of being excited by γ-rays, and 8B should be the nuclear fission to be excited by the electrons with the certain energy. These fission actions are similarly very important for the advance of nuclei cycling, also they can never be neglected. The nuclear fission can all make the nuclear charge number decrease more, and make the nuclei cycling step deeper level. The nuclear fission is one of the important properties of some nuclides, too.
We should also notice another neutrons’ reactions. These reactions similarly have important contribution to the nuclear cycling. They can produce those smaller nuclei with new energy, though no electrons and neutrons etc. yield:
3He + n → 3H + p +γ
4He + n → 3H + d +γ
5He + n → 23H +γ
6Li + n → 4He + 3H +γ
14N + n → 14C + p +γ
In brief, the nuclear reactions of the neutrons have very multiple effects , not only those of the upper of having been enumerated. In fact, there are lots of the nuclear reactions not to talk about due to thinking of the particle’s space.
In addition, it is also very important that those reactions can be caused by such as the neutrinos and the γ-rays and the X-rays etc., because they similarly join in the processes of nuclei cycling. They make various particles including varied light nuclei and heavy nuclei own various energy states, and decide directly to produce the certain elementary particles or the decaying ways for example α β γ decays etc. The existing of those isomers is just a proof of this . The following is the eighth group of the nuclear reactions <8> shown:
d + γ → d* → p + n + γ’
9Be + γ → 9Be* → 8Be + n + γ’
8Be + γ → 8Be* → 7Be + n + γ’
8Be + γ → 8Be* → 7Li + p
8B +γ→ 8B* → 8Be + e+ +υ+γ’
In a word, as the kinds and quantities of elementary particles and super-nuclides are increasing continuously, the nuclei cycling must also become complicated more and more. But, it is always the main mode of thermonuclear fusion that a series of the nuclear reactions are caused by the electrons and the neutrons and the γ-rays etc., because there are the most quantities of them in the system of fixed star. Certainly, it should include some super-nuclides making the others decays, for instance D-decay and αdecay etc, all according to their own energy state to decide.
Moreover, there are probably the collisions between the electrons and the neutrons or super-neutrons to yield the antiprotons and super-antiprotons even including some anti-nuclei etc. within the fixed star. But the quantities of the anti-nuclei are quite little unless there are the superabundant quantities of intensive electrons in the certain regions of the system. Certainly, these anti-particles can also take actively part in the thermonuclear cycling actions. The following is the ninth group of the particles’ reactions <9> shown:
n + e → p- +υ
p- + n → d-
d- + n → 3 -1H
3 -1H → 3 -2He + e+ +υ
p- + e+ → n +υ+γ
p- + e+ → K0+π0 +υ+γ
p- + p → 2n +υ+γ
p- + p → Λ + K0+π0 +υ+γ
p- + p → n + Λ +υ+γ
p- + d → n + Λ + K0+π0 +υ+γ
p- + d →2Λ + K0+π0 +υ+γ
p- + d → 3n +υ+γ
Besides, another elementary particles such as the positrons and neutrinos and µ-particles and mesons and Λ-particles and such particles, which are also in the thermonuclear fusion, all can be in the collision with each other by themselves, besides they can collide with the light nuclei or the neutrons etc. Similarly each of the reactions has different reactive cross section. For instance, the positrons and the electrons can all combine to form the electric dipoles. The following is the tenth group of the particles’ reactions <10> shown:
e + e+ → e±+γ
e + e+ →υ+γ
e +μ+ → e±+υ+γ
e+ +μ- → e±+υ+γ
μ+ +μ- →μ±+γ
μ±→ e + e+ +2υ
μ- + p → n +μ±+γ
π- + p →π0 + n +υ+γ
π- + p → Λ+ K0+υ+γ
π- +π+ → K0 +υ+γ
e +π+ →π0 +υ+γ
e+ +π- →π0 +υ+γ
e±+γ→ e + e+
μ- +γ→ e +υ
μ+ +γ→ e+ +υ
υ+γ→ e + e+
π- +γ→π0 + e +υ
π+ +γ→π0 + e++υ
n +γ→ n*→ p + e +υ
p +γ→ p* → n + e+ +υ
Of course, the probability that the electrons bombard into the light nuclei is greater than the heavier multi-charge nuclei because of the Coulomb law. But the reactive section that the neutrons collide into the heavy nuclei is greater than the lighter nuclei. But then, the positive elementary particles with a unit charge, for example e+ μ+ Κ+ л+, require larger energy to collide into the nuclei. Even their nuclear reactive sections are usually smaller than that of the negative elementary particles with a unit charge colliding into the nuclei, but these positive elementary particles are much easer to combine with the negative elementary particles. Undoubtedly, this property is very important in the thermonuclear fusion.
Although that the multi-nuclei cycling depends on the elementary particles cycling and bombarding is the main mode of the nuclear reactions, yet we cannot negate the existence that two light nuclei may straight collide each other to form a compound nucleus, for example the protons or the deuterium or αparticles etc bombarding the light nuclei and the two light nuclei colliding each other. But then, these incidents are usually quite few in the thermonuclear fusion except that two light nuclei have enough momentum difference.
Moreover, according to the double cycles, each multi-charge nucleus can gather some charged elementary particles for example the electrons and protons, so this gathering process indicates that the distribution of the electric fields and plasma density can be changed suddenly and rapidly, especially as lots and lots of the heavy nuclei are produced. These accumulating actions of the multi-charge nuclei also means that the electromagnetic fields are magnified certain multiple to influence the charged elementary particles around them. These effects are similarly very important for accelerating the charged elementary particles to take part in the double cycles of thermonuclear fusion.
Not only the ways that the elementary particles collide with various nuclei are very complicated, but also the kinds and quantities of the elementary particles escaping from the sidereal system are quite amazing us, too. We are aware of that the neutrinos are easily to escape. The electrons bombarding the light nuclei and lots of nuclides making β-decay can all produce the neutrinos, but not all thermonuclear reactions can yield the neutrinos; moreover, the neutrinos can also join in the double cycles of the thermonuclear fusion to hold the homeostasis of the system, so the amounts of radiating neutrinos of the sun are quite limited, though we are not quite clear about its causing process as yet. Perhaps, this model is fairly useful to resolve the so-call problem of the solar neutrinos lacking .
We should notice that, the happenings that can be surveyed like 8B decay can yield some neutrinos of high energy are still very few. Because, there are not plenty of 8B to have been made according to the double cycles of the thermonuclear fusion, but it formation must depend on the nuclear reactions like 6Li collide with 4He or 7Be collide with p etc. Of course, the conditions that the two nuclei directly combine are very particular, so this phenomenon is also unusual to appear. Perhaps, the neutrinos stream of high energy can be easer to be seized by the instrument device as the sun is taking place the violent eruption that fully proclaims the rough thermonuclear reactions. Therefore, no the certain abundance ratio of 8B, there are just no the neutrinos stream of high energy. That the abundance ratio of 8B is very low is similarly the strong evidence that the double cycles model is correct very much.
4.The Abundance Ratios of Various Nuclei and Their Fluctuation
As the fusion theory of the double cycles, the hydrogen nuclei can evolve gradually into varied heavy nuclei even including super-uranium nuclides through the thermonuclear reactions. It is quite clear to show that varied nuclear reactions must become very complicated, and the kinds and quantities of various nuclides including super-nuclides must also become more plentiful with the advance of sidereal evolution. In particular, some super-nuclides have longer half-life and others are very short, thus varied decays can continue to produce much various nuclides. The instable nuclides including lots of super-nuclides always change into the very stable nuclides. Thus, there must be the abundance ratios of various nuclei in the fixed star.
So, the fixed star includes both the cycling of the light nuclei like H, He, Li, Be etc. and the cycling of the multi-charge nuclei like Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, … K, Ca, Sc, Ti, … Fe, Co, Ni and such the middle nuclei, even developing down to the super-uranium nuclei. Along with the stable nuclides increasing, some nuclei will become more and more, so there are the certain nuclei to have the existing of higher abundance ratio in the fixed star at any time , and these abundance ratios are always extending and moving gradually from the light nuclei to the heavier nuclei. But, there is also the maximal abundance ratio among all nuclei.
In the meantime, there must be the weak fluctuation of the abundance ratios of various nuclei in the thermonuclear fusion system for a long times. Some nuclei are decreased and others are increased reciprocally, and the abundance ratio’s change has usually a periods. The unapparent periods’ change is a course of nuclear reactions state from the violence to the usualness. But, this change cannot yet turn the whole sidereal tendency that, the abundance ratios of some light nuclei are higher in the primary times of fixed star, together with extending gradually to those increasing of the heavy nuclei. So we can observe that the sun has some nuclear abundance ratios fluctuating in a long times.
The violent fusion burst when the fixed star is in each active period will have the large quantities of compound nuclei brought out, and make plenty of hydrogen plasma decrease quickly. Each of violent bursts means that, the amounts of certain nuclei increase appreciably together with that the abundance ratios of these nuclei rise up a litter, and accordingly the quantities of some light nuclei decrease a few meanwhile their abundance ratios drop down somewhat. There are always some regions to make violent nuclear reactions in the fixed star at any time, and these active regions must gradually change into the inactive state except that the elementary particles are increased to the certain extremity of causing re-burst because of super-nuclides decaying.
Because those compound nuclei have various decays and the elementary particles can be gathered, we needn’t be afraid that the thermonuclear reactions will stop up right off. Even if the system lacks temporarily whatever elementary particles, the reciprocal super-nuclides can all compensate those elementary particles through mass decays and fissions. For example, thinking of the different half-life of various super-nuclides, some super-nuclides of having fission ability can be gathered together to the certain amounts, thus, some gathering bodies of super-nuclides can make fission-burst, and the quantities of elementary particles can increase rapidly and cause the fixed star to return to active period. There are always some factors of assorting with the reactive energy in the fixed star, particularly the existence of certain super-nuclides is very important. This is also one of the important reasons why the thermonuclear reactions can be maintained. Therefore, the auto-adaptation of thermonuclear reactions is just the cycle behaving of the violent fusion burst.
Attached to a word, for our sun, the cycling change of violent fusion actions have certainly a serious influence to decide the environment of the earth because of earth’s dependence on the sun. So the earth’s climate must also have the changing periods along with the cycle fluctuation of the abundance ratios of certain nuclei within the sun.
5.The Existence of Various Super-nuclei and Super-heavy Super-nuclei
Undoubtedly, along with the plasma being used up, there are the large quantities of the neutrons and the super-heavy neutrons in the nuclear fusion, and the quantities of them always continue to increase. Thus, the system can completely own an ample condition to yield varied super-nuclides even including super-heavy super-nuclides and varied nuclides bodies’ groups. From the upper reactive equations of <5> we can know, even the hydrogen super-nuclides can accept one electron to evolve into the body of multi-neutron, namely the super-neutrons which can be composed of several neutrons, for example the Λ and such particles discovered :
p + π- →Λ+ K0+υ [2n] + n →Λ+Λ
These neutrons and super-neutrons can form various compound nuclides with the nuclei, though varied super-heavy super-nuclides and super-uranium nuclides even including the larger multi-neutron bodies are sure to require over a longer times to be made.
Especially, We must notice the properties of the super-nuclides. We are already aware of that certain super-nuclides are ease to decay immediately in the laboratory, but its properties should have greater difference in the fixed star, because there are plenty of the elementary particles to bombard the super-nuclides around it. These super-nuclides can continue to keep capturing some of the elementary particles and varied rays, and meanwhile emitting rapidly such as electrons, positrons, protons, neutrons, meson etc., and varied rays even including αparticle. That is also to say, various nuclides constantly exchange the energy with each other to make their own state fairly steady with the aid of the elementary particles. So the action state of super-nuclides can be controlled by the elementary particles all along, except that the elementary particles are lacking very much about them.
Authentically, in the system of thermonuclear fusion, none of the super-nuclides refuses the decay at all. But the existence of their stable state is exactly the result of that the super-nuclides can decay continuously and rapidly and meanwhile capture immediately the elementary particles again. They can regulate and change continuously their own state to adapt the bombardment of plenty of the elementary particles, but have no time to return to the ground state of them. Thus, the more plentifully the elementary particles, the more complicatedly and variedly the kinds of those stable super-nuclides. This is the main reason why the super-nuclides can make their energy and structure steady with the aid of the elementary particles. Of course, this maintaining state is all a mode of the dynamic equilibrium of energy and structure.
Therefore, both the formation of heavy super-nuclides and the growth of nuclides group’s bodies are directly relative to the collision between the super-nuclides and the elementary particles. Perhaps, the state of certain super-nuclides can become fairly stable in the more frequent and violent thermonuclear reactions. Even the few quantities of the super-neutron bodies can also appear in the huge system of nuclear fusion because of the frequent collision and combination of the super-neutrons each other.
Of course, if the decaying speeds of super-nuclides are faster than the colliding ability of the elementary particles, those heavy super-nuclides won’t be able to hold their temporary existing state unless the large quantities of elementary particles collide directly into them again. In fact, plenty of hydrogen plasma are used out, the fixed star make constriction and cause the plasma density to increase, thus it can just make the bombarding ability of the elementary particles be maintained so as not to overstep the fully decaying time of certain super-nuclides. According to the double cycles model of thermonuclear fusion, the electrons with the certain energy are the key of causing nuclear fusion, then the electrons’ average energy E and density ρe and bulk Be can decide the fixed star to evolve and maintain the nuclear fusion actions. Namely only as the following formulas come into existence, the continuous thermonuclear fusion can appear:
ρe Be = Q ≥ Qe (1)
Q E ≥ Ee Qe = C (2)
Q is the total quantities of electrons in the system, Qe is the smallest quantities of causing the elementary particles cycling to keep thermonuclear fusion lasting, C is a constant, and Ee is just the energy of the electrons captured by the protons. But, there is still the certain relation between the density of plasma and the energy of electrons. It seems that both the density of plasma and the electrons’ energy must be a certain value in order to maintain continuously the thermonuclear fusion.
Certainly, the quantities of the stable super-nuclides are quite limited, not all super-nuclides can be kept for a long times. The instable super-nuclides always change gradually into the stable nuclei. The quantities of stable nuclei must become more and more. Various quantities of varied nuclides always exist, and show different abundance ratios in the thermonuclear fusion at any time.
Commonly, the heavier the super-nuclides of owning the same nuclear charge, the shorter their half-lives, but their activity intensity can become much stronger. This effect is similarly very important for the thermonuclear fusion lasting and various nuclides collecting. Moreover, some super-nuclides can make the nuclear fission as they are collided by the neutrons etc., so the nuclear fission should be one of the properties of some super-nuclides, too.
Meanwhile, the magnetism of super-nuclides should be regarded specially, because it is probably the cause of the super-nuclides gathering together. We have known the magnetic properties of various isotopes have great difference [1,7] including causing Tc of super-conduction to change . So the magnetic properties of various super-nuclides should similarly have great discrepancies, and they can decide plenty of particles to accumulate.
From the theory analyzing, each nucleus has the charge-structure, and the elementary particles in and out the nuclei must break the charge-structure and cause the nuclear magnetic moment to change. At least, the magnetic moment will have the moment fluctuating with the advance of super-nuclides decaying. The nuclear magnetism of holding β+ decay must be different from that of holding β- decay. Even both the magnetic moment and the spin can be quite inconsistent for some isotopes with the same charge, for example the isotopes between the nuclides holding β- decay and those of holding β+ decay.
These magnetic discrepancies should be the base of the super-nuclides mixing with varied nuclides to form various bodies. Some nuclides of having strong magnetism are much easier to gather together and form varied magnetic bodies so as to control the surrounding charged particles to motion. Perhaps, the nuclides bodies of mixing certain super-nuclides will show much stronger magnetism in the fixed star. I believe that some super-nuclides must have exceptional magnetism, but the continuous experiments on this side are still quite necessary. At the present time, no one further regards this problem yet.
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